By Chih Ted Yang, Lawrence K. Wang
This publication, Advances in Water assets Engineering, quantity 14, covers the themes on watershed sediment dynamics and modeling, built-in simulation of interactive floor water and groundwater structures, river channel stabilization with submerged vanes, non-equilibrium sediment shipping, reservoir sedimentation, and fluvial procedures, minimal power dissipation expense thought and purposes, hydraulic modeling improvement and alertness, geophysical tools for evaluate of earthen dams, soil erosion on upland components by way of rainfall and overland move, geofluvial modeling methodologies and purposes, and environmental water engineering glossary.
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Fig. 20 Comparison of the observed and simulated sediment concentration at the Zichang station during the period of model calibration 1 Watershed Sediment Dynamics and Modeling 31 32 G. Wang et al. 41 NSE Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency With the parameters determined by model calibration, the other three rainfall events are simulated by using the DYRIM. 22. 7. Overall, the simulation results during the period of model validation seemed to be a little worse than those during the period of model calibration.
The other one is the adjustable parameters, including infiltration rate of ground surface, vertical infiltration rate from the topsoil layer to subsoil layer, and horizontal infiltration rates of the two soil layers, which can be calibrated and verified with the observed rainfall data and hydrologic data. 3) 16 G. Wang et al. Pn net rainfall intensity (m/s) Ecan evaporation rate of the canopy water (m/s) Wu water storage of topsoil (m3) qzu infiltration rate of the land surface (m/s) qzd infiltration rate from the topsoil to subsoil (m/s) Eu evaporation rate of topsoil water (m/s) Qgu topsoil drainage (m3/s) Wd water storage of subsoil (m3) Qgd subsoil drainage (m3/s).
The simulation of soil erosion process here is based on the rain-runoff simulation results that inevitably bring errors into the soil erosion simulation. This is approved by the fact that most of the simulation errors of sediment discharge and flow discharge have the same tendencies. Moreover, errors from the simulations of gravitational erosion, flow routing, and sediment transport also contribute to the errors of simulated sediment concentrations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy of sediment discharge depends on all the modules of water and sediment movement processes and their hybrids in a watershed.