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4. , building blocks of lignin) and a chlorine donor; and the formation of dioxins and furans on flyash parti cles from the condensation of organics and chlorine atoms on the surface of the solid particle. 52 Chapter II 0 3 6 9 12 15 OXYGEN CONCENTRATION FIGURE 10. Excess oxygen (excess air) and carbon monoxide emissions, showing the appropriate range for MSW incinerators. Note that Region ¢ involves insufficient oxygen for complete combustion of the carbon in the waste while Region C involves "cold burning/' and unfavorable conditions for oxidizing the CO formed.
Efficiency of MSW Combustion Flame temperature and intensity are, indirectly, deter minants of MSW combustion system thermal efficiency. Thermal efficiency can be calculated as follows: n = [1-(HL/HI)J x 100 (2-34) Where n is efficiency (percent), HL is the sum of all heat losses, and HI is the sume of all heat inputs. HL desig nates such heat losses as dry stack gas losses, moisture losses, unburned carbon, inert solids losses, radiation, and manufacturers margin. Efficiency can also be viewed in terms of exergy.
31. Tillman, D. A. 1987. Biomass Combustion. In Biomass: Regenerable Energy (D. 0. Hall, and R. P. ). pp. 203-219. , London. 1983. Dioxin Formation in Science and Technology, 1986. Waste to Chapter III MASS BURN SYSTEMS FOR COMBUSTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE I. INTRODUCTION Mass burning of mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) is the dominant technology used for thermal volume reduction to thermally destroy household refuse. Three basic components are associated with the combustion process in MSW incinera tion systems: the waste receiving area (tip hall and pit) and waste feed system, the combustion system itself, and the air quality control system.