By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph presents a world viewpoint on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been realized over the last decade via study and useful event on tips on how to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the ebook, normal clinical concerns are offered in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technological know-how, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the atypical organic gains that ensue within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy presents an summary of tools at the moment used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the e-book is a suite of local surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 ecu international locations and Australia, and case stories of varied person consultant lakes. a last case research offers an leading edge method of assessing the commercial worth of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and advantages, a necessary software for choice makers.
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Extra info for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
Below pH of about 3, ferric iron is soluble in water; a pronounced red color is often encountered. In the aluminum buffered pH range of about 5, mine water can show a turbid blue to turquoise color. Light attenuation in these colored lakes can be very high. Measurements in Moritzteich show the spectrum of irradiated light against depth (Fig. 2 in the mixolimnion (above 10 m depth). While directly below the surface there is considerable input of near infrared light and near UV, wave lengths below 300 nm and above 750 nm have been (nearly) completely attenuated before reaching a depth of 1 m.
These data are used to illustrate how the concentrations of dissolved substances are related to pH (Fig. 17 a–c). The ranges within the datasets are compared and discussed (Figs. 19). The solubility of many constituents increase with decreasing pH, in particular carbonates, metal (hydr)oxides, and silicates. Magnesium (Fig. 17a), aluminum, the heavy metals including iron (Fig. 17b), and silicon (Fig. 17c) follow this pattern. Whereas ferric iron and oxidized manganese species increasingly precipitate with increasing pH, concentrations of iron and manganese can still be elevated under neutral conditions due to the high solubility of iron(II) and manganese (II) at anoxic conditions.
In addition, the groundwater connection plays an important role in many meromicitic pit lakes (von Rohden and Ilmberger 2001; Seebach et al. 2008; von Rohden et al. 2009). Quantification and numerical simulation of processes controlling meromixis remain a challenge (Böhrer et al. 1998; Jellison et al. 1998; Heidenreich et al. 1999; Fig. 12). Besides iron, the anoxic decomposition of organic material, manganese, and calcite precipitation must be included in stability considerations. Many other elements experience co-precipitation, when the above-mentioned chemicals form solids in the water column.