AC by Tony R. Kuphaldt

By Tony R. Kuphaldt

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Whereas resistors simply oppose the flow of electrons through them (by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the current), inductors oppose changes in current through them, by dropping a voltage directly proportional to the rate of change of current. In accordance with Lenz’s Law, this induced voltage is always of such a polarity as to try to maintain current at its present value. That is, if current is increasing in magnitude, the induced voltage will ”push against” the electron flow; if current is decreasing, the polarity will reverse and ”push with” the electron flow to oppose the decrease.

This will become more apparent in the next example. 3. SIMPLE VECTOR ADDITION 6V 0 deg + - 8V 180 deg + 33 - 2V + 180 deg 6V + + + 8V - - 2V Determining whether or not these voltage sources are opposing each other requires an examination of their polarity markings and their phase angles. Notice how the polarity markings in the above diagram seem to indicate additive voltages (from left to right, we see - and + on the 6 volt source, - and + on the 8 volt source). Even though these polarity markings would normally indicate an additive effect in a DC circuit (the two voltages working together to produce a greater total voltage), in this AC circuit they’re actually pushing in opposite directions because one of those voltages has a phase angle of 0o and the other a phase angle of 180o .

Jason Starck (June 2000): HTML document formatting, which led to a much better-looking second edition. 54 CHAPTER 2. 1 AC resistor circuits R If we were to plot the current and voltage for a very simple AC circuit consisting of a source and a resistor, it would look something like this: e= i= + Time Because the resistor simply and directly resists the flow of electrons at all periods of time, the waveform for the voltage drop across the resistor is exactly in phase with the waveform for the current through it.

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