By Wilde, Christopher P.
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Examples of this are possibly the mid-centralised vowel [ɪ], and intervocalic voiced retroflex/rhotic segments. Thirdly, from a strictly structuralist point of view, non-contrastive elements such as nasalisation should not present a problem in the phonology. However, though there is no basis for postulating phonemic nasalisation (cf. also Toulmin 2006:138-139), it is indeed used by many speakers. Whereas many informants are of the opinion that nasalised vowels are used and should be marked in the orthography, cross-informant examination reveals that there is little consensus as to where it exists.
It is difficult at times to draw a clear line between suffixes and clitics, since these are at times closely interrelated in relation to function. Especially when discussing case, it was essential for purposes of clarity to discuss case inflection and case-marking clitics in the same section. g. case particles, auxiliary verbs) entering into paradigmatic contrasts. There are compelling reasons to do so. For one, the line between such analytic elements and agglutinative affixes is uncertain, particularly since the former are generally ancestral to the latter.
11) a. मुइँ /mui/ [mũĩ] or [mui] '1sg[pro]' b. तुइँ /t ̪ui/ [t ̪ʊ̃/ũĩ] or [t ̪ʊ/ui] '2sg[pro]' c. उहाँ(ए) /wæhæ̃ (e)/ [wæ̃ ɦæ̃ (ẽ)] '3sg[pro]' d. याहाँ(ए) /jæhæ̃ (e)/ [jæ̃ ɦæ̃ (ẽ)] '3sg[pro/prox]' e. जाहाँ(ए) /dzæhæ̃ (e)/ [dzæ̃ ɦæ̃ (ẽ)] 'REL[p]' f. काह /kæhẽ/ [kæ̃ (ɦ)e̤]̃ 'who' Vowel length and stress are not contrastive. 7 Understanding how stress placement is affected by verbal morphology, and how stress affects the length of syllables (both stressed and unstressed), requires further research.