A handbook of the Scottish Gaelic world by Michael Newton

By Michael Newton

A instruction manual of the Scottish Gaelic international focuses upon Gaelic cultural survival from the twelfth to the 18th centuries.

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A handbook of the Scottish Gaelic world

A instruction manual of the Scottish Gaelic global focuses upon Gaelic cultural survival from the twelfth to the 18th centuries.

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Ethelflaed built the northern fortifications, took Derby, obtained control of Leicester and received the submission of York, exploits which the (West Saxon) Anglo-Saxon Chronicle appropriated to her brother, King Edward. The conquest of the north was a more protracted affair than that of the midlands, but in 954 Northumbria (both Danish York and English Bamburgh) finally accepted West Saxon Rome and the Anglo-Saxons 27 authority. In 973 Edgar was able to stage an elaborate consecration at Bath, a city with imperial associations, in which he was crowned as king of the English.

Eric Kerridge has argued that the first system for permanent cultivation in northern Europe was introduced in England, displacing systems of temporary and shifting cultivation such as slash-and-burn techniques, and that this important transformation was only subsequently introduced in northern Europe: 'England, as usual, was different ... the English were as precocious in their agriculture as in their centralised government'. Common fields in the eighth century, permanently cultivated from the tenth, ensured, he claimed, greater agricultural productivity than elsewhere: From the ninth century or somewhat before, fine English cloth, later English wool, and, from the fifteenth century, English cloth again, along with some wheat and base and semi-precious metals, earned a lion's share of the silver mined in south Germany, and this, together with her own far more modest output, gave England silver and to spare.

East Anglia passed from Rome and the Anglo-Saxons 33 Athelstan Half-King to two of his sons in tum: Aethelwold (956-62) and Aethelwine (962-92), and Mercia from Aelfhere (956-83) to his brother-in-law, Aelfric did (983-5). It was the much despised Aethelred II (the Unready) who prevented further devolution: there was no ealdorman of Mercia from 985 to 1007 and, when Eadric was appointed in the latter year, he came from a completely different family. After 992, there was no earl of East Anglia until Thorkell the Tall, under Cnut, though Ulfketel had some wideranging power in the area in Aethelred's time.

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